Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (Ukrainian: Іван Степанович Мазепа, Russian: Ива́н Степа́нович Мазе́па,Polish: Jan Mazepa Kołodyński; March 20, 1639 – October 2, 1709), Cossack Hetman of the Hetmanate inLeft-bank Ukraine, from 1687–1708, the Prince of the Holy Roman Empire 1707-1709. He was famous as a patron of the arts, and also played an important role in the Battle of Poltava where after learning of Peter I's intent to relieve him as acting Hetman of Ukraine and replace him with Alexander Menshikov, he deserted his army and sided with Charles of Sweden. The politicization of this desertion has held a lasting legacy in both Russian and Ukrainian national history.
Όταν οι προδότες γίνονται χαρτονομίσματα- σταβήματα του και ο Stepan Bandera
Because of this, the Russian Orthodox Church has laid an anathema on his name since the beginning of the 18th century and refuses to renounce to this day. Everyone who opposed the Russian government in eighteenth-century Ukraine were derogatorily referred to as Mazepintsy (Mazepists). The alienation of Mazepa from Ukrainian history continued during the Soviet period, but since Ukraine's independence there have been strong moves to rehabilitate Mazepa's image, although he remains a figure of mixed standing.
The last straw in the souring relations with Tsar Peter was his refusal to commit any significant force to defend Ukraine against the Polish King Stanislaus Leszczynski, an ally of Charles XII of Sweden, who threatened to attack the Cossack Hetmanate in 1708.
Peter expected that king Charles of Sweden was going to attack and thought that he could spare no forces. In the opinion of Mazepa, this blatantly violated theTreaty of Pereyaslav, since Russia refused to protect Ukraine's territory and left it to fare on its own. As the Swedish and Polish armies advanced towards Ukraine, Mazepa allied himself with them on October 28, 1708. However, only 3,000 Cossacks followed their Hetman, with rest remaining loyal to the Tsar. Mazepa's call to arms was further weakened by the Orthodox Clergy's allegiance for the Tsar. Learning of Mazepa's treason, the Russian army sacked and razed the Cossack Hetmanate capital of Baturyn, killing most of the defending garrison and many common people. The Russian army was ordered to tie up the dead Cossacks to crosses, and float them down the Dnieper Riverall the way to the Black Sea. This was done for the purpose of intimidating the Mazepa loyalists who lived downstream along the Dnieper.
Those Cossacks who did not side with Mazepa elected a new hetman, Ivan Skoropadsky, on November 11, 1708. The fear of other reprisals and suspicion of Mazepa's newfound Swedish ally prevented most of Ukraine's population from siding with him. Surprisingly, the only significant support which he gathered came from the Zaporizhian Sich, which, though at odds with the Hetman in the past, considered him and the nobility he represented a lesser evil compared with the Tsar. The Sich Cossacks paid dearly for their support of Mazepa, as Peter I ordered the Sich to be razed in 1709 and a decree was issued to execute any active Zaporizhian Cossack.
Monsanto plans $140 mln Ukraine non-GM corn seed plant
"The seeds will be for the Ukrainian market and for export."
Ukraine, which harvested about 3 million tonnes of maize 10 years ago, threshed 20.9 million tonnes of the commodity in 2012 and might increase the output to 21.8 million tonnes this year, analysts say.
Initial investment in the project "is intended to be about $140 million", Fedchuk said.
"We plan to have the plant operational as of August 2015, provided we finalise the land acquisition by mid-August 2013. We have several preferred locations, one of them is Vinnytsya."
Ukrainian laws bar local farmers from growing genetically modified crops. Asked whether Monsanto expected changes in regulations, Fedchuk said:
"Indeed, in Ukraine only conventional seeds are allowed for production and importation, thus we will be working with conventional seeds only." (Reporting by Olzhas Auyezov; Editing by Michael Roddy)